Lack of memory for arduino

problems (limitations) that can prevent robots from being made are the lack of I / O pins, and microcontroller memory. I have already figured out the I / O pins. You can use special microcircuits.
But with memory, I still do not understand. After all, someday the program memory will end. How can the microcontroller memory be increased?

The easiest solution is to buy an bigger arduino model with more RAM. If you need more memory for program and not just data, that might be your only option.

For storing data, there are multiple options available if you search for “arduino i2c ram”, including EEPROM options & FLASH. There is also the option of using an SD card.

I want to use a SD card, but I don’t yet understand how it will increase memory. Can you, please, give an example of a program whose memory no longer fits on an arduino, and then with the help of an SD card make it so that the code already fits? Some big math program with a bunch of calculations.

As I stated above, I don’t think SD is going to help you write a bigger program. It will only allow you to store more data.

but I still heard that you can connect external memory to arduino mega.

“connecting external memory” and “using it for program code” are two different things. Adding memory for storing data is not difficult. I don’t know if it is possible to store code in the added memory.

A quick web search turns up this article: https://arduino.stackexchange.com/questions/28794/how-to-expand-program-memory-on-an-arduino. I didn’t read through everything, but initial replies seem to confirm that added memory cannot be used for program code without changing out the bootloader (which is a rather advanced activity and will not be compatible with XOD).

Can i link two boards to run one program?

Not exactly. You might be able to split the program into two parts running on different boards and pass data between the two. This could work very well (for example) if 1st board is controlling other hardware and the 2nd board is running program logic that acts on data read from 1st board and/or sends commands to 1st board. You might also be able to use a 2nd board to do the processing for a particularly complicated function that might receive data from the 1st board, then pass result back to it. Note that having to add communication between the boards is going to increase your total program size.

If splitting your program between boards isn’t an option, your application might be better suited to a small computer like a Rasberry Pi (or others like it) rather than a micro-controller like Arduino. You won’t be able to use XOD to program it, though.

You can move to an Arduino Due, or if you are using lookup tables you can store alot of it in the EEPROM as well.

But the best bet would be to split the program across 2 Arduinos handling different aspects of the program